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Words and image: Minerals, crystals and rocks

This is a College Paper I did for Blue Planet – Environmental Science 101 Class (I have added to it and will continue to do so over time. I own or have owned these. I found, purchased, or they were given to me. All photos by me.

“Pick up a stone. In your hand you have a piece of the Earth’s crust, made up of minerals produced by the chemical reactions that formed the planet” (Dixon, 1992).


This paper is going to be a lot of fun for me to write because it is about many of the rocks and crystals that I own. I’ve always loved pretty rocks. I remember going to an old mine in New Hampshire - Ruggles Mine - when I was a little girl and enjoying it very much. I have nothing left from that time but vague memories. I am not a true collector because many of my rocks are not labeled. I do like looking at them. I like rocks better in their natural formation although I have many that are formed into beads and other shapes. This will be a simple paper as I am not as knowledgeable as rock hounds and geologists. 
Minerals are that from which the Earth is made. They are inorganic chemical compounds. Some are simple and some are very complex and are naturally formed within the crust of the Earth. Rocks are made up of these minerals (Shaffer & Zim, 2001). Sometimes one can see the individual minerals in the rock and sometimes they are so small they can only be seen with a microscope ( Dixon, 1992).

Most common minerals can be identified by inspecting or testing their physical properties. These properties are color, streak, transparency, luster, hardness, cleavage, fracture, specific gravity, and crystal form (Dixon, 1992). I will only use the properties we learned about in class. If you use this information in a paper, please give me credit and please let me know that you did. Thanks!

Quartz Crystals

Quartz is a silicate, there are many varieties, and is the most common mineral on Earth. Quartz crystals generally have hexagonal faces and vitreous to greasy luster. The clear to white quartz crystal is often called a rock quartz. (Covey, 2006)
Quartz is made of the mineral silicon oxide or silica (SiO2). It has no cleavage; hardness is 7 and can come in many colors (Sofianides, 1990). Quartz is a hard and durable material and is non-metallic. (Sofianides, 1990). Rock crystals are mainly white and sometimes colorless ( Dixon, 1992).

Photo: QuartzI have to start with this one on the right. This is my large white quartz crystal which is 9" tall. I purchased it in 2003 for $30 from man along side the road in El Prado, New Mexico; it comes from Arkansas, and was dug up by his friend some time in 2002. 

The rock crystals I have pictured here and following are clear or milky white. My large quartz crystal is white. It’s interesting that all the quartz crystals have hexagonal faces from really large to very tiny. (Borelli and Cipriani, 1986). 

photo:   quartz crystal group“When crystal quartz is cut at a particular angle to its axis, pressure on it generates a minute electrical charge. This effect makes quartz of great usefulness in the electronics industry and clocks. It is so useful that it is now grown in laboratories.” Quartz sand is used to make glass. (Shaffer and Zim, 2001).
Above/left is a quartz crystal cluster, drilled out in the center to hold a candle. It is 7” wide and was purchased in 2006 at “Pieces” store in Taos. It came originally from Brazil .

Photo: Quartz CrystalQuartz crystal purchased in 2005 on eBay.
It is 2½ inches long also from Brazil .


Photo: Quartz Crystal pyramidQuartz crystal pyramid cut to shape, about 2⅔ inches across at the base.
Purchased on eBay; originally from Brazil, according to the seller.


I made the video above, while shining a laser light on this crystal. Just for fun.

Photo: Quartz CrystalsTwo crystals that were given to me in 2003. 
They are 3½" and 1¾".
Originally from Brazil . 


Photo: A bunch of crystalsA bunch of crystals, including amethysts purchased in 2005. 
The clear crystals are from China.
The Amethysts are from Brazil.
The largest is probably about an inch long. They are now sitting outside as part of my rock garden, as are many of my rocks and crystals listed here.

Photo: Quartz crystalTabby quartz crystal given to me by my friend in 2003.Broken in two; almost 3” long in all. I don’t remember where this one was originally from. But I like it a lot. It’s called a “tabby” because of its flattened shape.

The word quartz comes from “the Slavic Kwardy, meaning “hard.” The Romans changed it to quarzum. A German scholar Agricola in the 1500’s was the first to scientifically classify minerals. He thought that the “term [quartz] was used by the Bohemian miners of Joachimstal (now Jachimov, Czechoslovakia )” (Sofianides, 1990).

Amethyst Crystals

Amethyst crystals are also quartz crystals. They are also non-metallic, light, hard (H=7), with no cleavage. Amethyst’s streak is white (Covey, 2006). The purple color is caused by impurities from iron or manganese (Friedman, 2005). Amethyst was used as “a decorative stone before 25,000 B.SC. in France and has been found with the remains of Neolithic man different parts of Europe.” It was used in Egypt before 3100 B.C. (Sofianides, 1990). Amethyst was once highly prized, and priced, till large amounts of it were found in Brazil (Shaffer & Zim, 2001).

Photo: Amethyst CrystalsAmethyst, purchased on eBay in 2003. 
A bit more than 2" long.
Originally from Mexico.

Various small amethysts. Most are from Mexico. Some were given to me by friends; the one that is a tiny cluster was purchased from eBay. One of them was apparently run through one of those rock tumblers.

Photo: Amethyst crystal clustersVarious amethyst clusters given to me in 2003 by my friend. I believe they are from Brazil ; I know they are from South or Central America. They are 2", 2 ½", and almost 3". One of them is light in color because it was left in the sun. Now I know to not leave amethysts in the sun; if you do it will eventually become clear.

Rose Quartz

Photo: Rose Quartz The rose quartz on the right was purchased from eBay in 2003. It came from somewhere in the USA ; and is almost 2 ½” across.
The pink color is caused by iron and titanium impurities. No one knows why, but rose quartz rarely forms into crystal points. (Covey, 2006). 
In the book by Shaffer and Zim they say the pink color is from dumortierite (2001).
“The pink to rose red color completely unique, unlike any other pink mineral species. Brazil is also the only source of true well formed crystals of rose quartz. So amazing are the rose quartz crystals that the first ones discovered were dismissed as fakes by mineralogists from around the world” (Covey, 2006). Rose quartz point crystals, when found, are extremely valuable (Friedman, 2005).

Various small rocks

Photo: Various small rocksVarious small rocks given to me, purchased, or found, 2004 to 2005. Most of them have been tumbled. They are: black tourmaline, calcite, granite with mica (or a schist), snowflake obsidian, hematite, and several smoky Quartz pieces.
The inside of the box above measures approximately 2" by 3".

Crystals/Rocks Contained in the Box Above

Black Tourmaline: White streak, hardness is 7 to 7½; tourmaline can be transparent or opaque, and it comes in many colors. It has no cleavage. It can have a vitreous luster, but when it is black or brown it can be dull (Friedman, 2005). Most people think tourmaline is one mineral but it is in fact a group made up of several minerals (Covey, 2006). A silicate of “aluminum with boron and several other metals, it is occasionally abundant with mica and feldspars in granitic rocks” (Shaffer and Zim, 2001). Mine is columnar and striated. All I can see is that black tourmaline is called black tourmaline; no other strange names. I was told that this one comes from Italy.
Calcite: I have only this tiny little piece of calcite; it is a chunk off a longer calcite that broke into several pieces. I know that it will fizz up if I were to put HCL on it, but I don’t want to do that. I know that it has quite good cleavage, because when it broke, it broke into flat planes. It’s definitely less than a five in hardness. It’s non-metallic and light in color. 
Granite with mica (or schist): See below, about Schist. Found during a walk in Taos.
Snowflake obsidian: Obsidian is Volcanic Silica Glass. It has iron and magnesium in it. “Inclusions of small, white, radially clustered crystals of cristobalite in the black glass produce a blotchy or snowflake pattern producing Snowflake Obsidian” (Sofianides and Harlow, 1990). See more about obsidian on page 15 and 16.
Hematite: See hematite below.
Smoky quartz pieces: These have all been tumbled in a rock tumbling machine. They are all quartz but they are dark in color and are called smoky quartz. See quartz information starting on page four to view properties

Chakra Crystals

Photo: Chakra crystals and rocksChakra Crystals given to me by one of my sisters.
Rocks are often used in healing practices. These rocks have all been tumbled. From the top going clockwise they are: Lapis Lazuli (blue), Hematite (gray), Rose Quartz (pink), Tigers Eye, Jade (2 of them), Carnelian (orange), Quartz Crystal, Amethyst. In the center is smoky Quartz.
To see more about what different stones are used for, search in Google for something like uses for healing stones, or see the list below.

Photo: Two more Chakra Crystals - oval turquoise and a length of black tourmaline. A list below shows where they should be placed on the body for a chakra healing. My Chakra Info Page.




Chakra and stone

High Crown - quartz
Crown - amethyst
Brow / third eye - lapis lazuli
Throat - turquoise
High heart - rose quartz
Heart - Jade
Solar plexus - Tigers eye
Sacral - orange carnelian
Base - black tourmaline
Earth (below feet) - Hematite

The smoky quartz can be placed to the side of the body for raising the vibrations and grounding of the body.

If you wish to do a healing on someone and place the above stones on their chakras, or place them on yourself, first cleanse the area by smudging and cleanse the stones by smudging or holding and turning briefly over a small flame. The person should also be clean, have on clean clothes and be sumdged. To see more about chakras and other healing information go to the Metaphysical Portion of My Website.

The fine print (Disclaimer): I give absolutely no guarantee that any of these clearings, healings or any of this works. It is all up to you! See more disclaimer on my metaphysical site.

More Various Small Stones

Image: various small stonesThese were purchased and gifted to me. There are also some pieces of white sage in the box. They stones are: rough turquoise, rough malachite, double pyramid of violet fluorite (top right corner), small dome of black hematite, treated quartz, piece of opal, and rose quartz sphere. 
The inside of the box is about 2½ by 2½ inches and contains the following.
Turquoise: Turquoise may have been the first gem to be mined and the first to be imitated. It has been found as Egyptian beads as early as 4000 B.C. It is suggested that mines were in production on the Sinai Peninsula before 3100 B.C. (Sofianides 1990). Turquoise is hydrated copper aluminum phosphate. It is, of course, turquoise in color. Hardness is 5 to 6; streak is white with a greenish tint; it is opaque and dull to waxy, sometimes vitreous luster (Covey, 2006). “Good quality turquoise is rare. Cheap stones are often dyed blue” (Shaffer and Zim, 2001). This small piece of turquoise was given to me and came from somewhere in New Mexico.
Malachite: This is one of my favorite stones. Malachite is hydrated copper carbonate. It was used in Egypt since 3000 B.C. It rarely occurs as crystals and it is usually massive or fibrous. It is soft and brittle and not very durable (Sofianides, 1990). It is dark green or sometimes banded light and dark green. It is opaque, its streak is green, it’s non-metallic, hardness is 3.5 to 4, and it is dark with no cleavage. (Covey, 2006) Malachite and azurite are often found together (Shaffer and Zim, 2001). This little piece of malachite was given to me at the Gem and Mineral Store in Taos; I seem to remember it came from Africa. I also have a necklace made of malachite but I have no clue where it came from.
Violet fluorite: This is a small octahedron of violet fluorite. See more information about fluorite above. I bought this somewhere in Taos and it originally came from Illinois.
Hematite: Hematite is an iron oxide and sometimes contains titanium; its hardness is 5 to 6; hematite is opaque; luster is metallic to dull; colors vary from black, gray, silver-gray, brown, reddish-brown to red. Its streak is red to reddish-brown. Hematite is weakly attracted to magnetic fields (Friedman, 2005). It is a very important ore of iron (Sofianides 1990). Zim and Shaffer also say that hematite is the most important iron ore; it contains about 70% iron. (2001). I purchased the black dome-shaped hematite pictured on page 13 on eBay and it originally came from Alaska.
Treated quartz: The tiny piece of treated quartz in the box above is called “Aqua Aura Quartz.” I bought it from “Aqua aura is produced by bonding the nuclei of molecules of pure gold to the quartz by the natural electrostatic charge of the crystal. This mysteriously produces a celestial shade of blue, which is part of the crystal and cannot be scraped off” (McDonald). I seem to remember the quartz crystal came from Brazil . It has the same properties of quartz crystals above.
Opal. The piece of opal in the box above was given to me by a friend. It came from someplace far away, like Australia or someplace like that. Also see below.
Tiny rose quartz sphere: This was given to me by the same friend who gave me the opal in the box. See more about rose quartz above.


Image: Silver and opal ringOpal is hydrated silicon dioxide. Opal is very precious and fragile and can be scratched very easily. Opal contains water which may evaporate and cause the opal to crack, get stressed or get smaller. Hardness is 5.5 to 6.5; there is no cleavage but it is brittle; luster is vitreous to pearly. In the 1800’s it became associated with bad luck (Sofianides 1990). “Opal derives from the Sanskrit Upala and the Latin opalus, meaning ‘precious stone’” (Sofianides 1990). “Color is white, colorless, pale yellow, pale red, gray or black when impurities are common. Diffraction can cause flashes of any color of the rainbow (opalescent)” (Covey, 2006). It is transparent to translucent. Its streak is white (Covey, 2006). The opal ring above was made and given to me by a friend.

Yet More Various Rocks

Image: Various small stones: Here are various stones I swapped for at in May of 2013 and a couple I got other places (the azurite and the I-don't know pieces).
From round red stone at left and clockwise: Solar Druzy Quartz, stone with azurite inclusions, I-don't-know (they might be jasper), Merlinite (dendritic opal), Green Onyx cabochon, Blue Onyx Agate cabochon. In the center is a 1 3/4" long rough Chrysocolla along with a small triangle-shaped smooth Chrysocolla stone.

Image: chryocolla stonesTo the right again, are the rough Chrysocolla, the small triangle-shaped smooth Chrysocolla stone and the Azurite included stone. Actually the azurite might be a Shattuckite. I looked in my crystal book. I was told it is an azurite though.

Image: Selenite. jade and crystal pointAnd finally in this section, to the left is a 2 1/4" wand that is a piece of selenite and is embellished with purple mountain jade (which I was told is marble) and a small crystal point.

As you can perhaps notice, I'm not mentioning hardness and all that regarding my more recent additions to this page. I only originally did that for my college paper.

Lapis Lazuli

Image:  lapis lazuli pendentThis is my lapis lazuli stone, which is 1½" from top to bottom. I bought this stone from the Gem and Mineral Shop in Taos and had it made into a necklace.
Lapis-lazuli is rich in lazurite and it sometimes has pyrite inclusions in it. It is used as an ornamental stone (Shaffer and Zim, 2001). I've read in some places that the inclusions are gold, don't believe this if you read it somewhere. The inclusions are pyrite.
Lapis lazuli is a silicate of sodium and aluminum and it contains sulphur. It has a hardness of 5 to 5.5, its cleavage is cubic, it is non-metallic and it is dark. It is opaque and vitreous (Borelli and Cipriani, 1986). The name comes from medieval Latin word for “stone” and from the Arabic word for “blue,” from which the word azure comes (Borelli and Cipriani, 1986). It is an aggregate from several minerals and metamorphically formed. Therefore, it is a metamorphic rock. It “is unrivaled among blue stones” ( Pearl, 1965).


Image: fluorite towerFluorite comes in many different colors. The composition of fluorite is calcium fluoride; the hardness is four, its streak is white, it has a vitreous to glassy luster (Friedman, 2005).
It can be transparent to translucent (Friedman, 2005). “The perfect cleavage parallel to the octahedral faces can sometimes be "peeled" off to smooth out a crystal into a perfect octahedron (Friedman, 2005).” Fluorite occurs in both sedimentary and igneous rocks. “ Mexico , China and Russia are the largest producers of fluorite.” Sometimes quartz or calcite are included with the veins of fluorite. Sometimes these can contain lead, copper or zinc (Shaffer and Zim, 2001).
(Left) This fluorite tower was purchased on eBay in 2005; it is 8” tall and it came from China . It is not its natural shape; it was cut into a six-sided tower from a larger piece. This is no longer mine; I gave it to a friend.
“Fluorite is a halide or a fluoride” ( Pearl, 1965) and is a fragile stone and comes in many colors (Sofianides and Harlow, 1990). “The word "fluorescent" is derived from the mineral Fluorite” (Friedman, 2005). It displays the fluorescent property vividly (Sofianides 1990).

Image:  box fluoriteThis beautiful cube fluorite (right) was purchased from the rock and gem shop in Taos in 2004. It has some purple amongst the green. It is 3¼” across and came from Namibia in Africa. This is no longer mine, I sold it.
Fluorite “is used in making high-test gasoline, Freon, and many other chemical products.” Fluorite has a good octahedral cleavage (Shaffer and Zim, 2001). It is also used as a flux in steel making and as a source of hydrofluoric acid ( Pearl, 1965).
The violet or purple fluorite was originally called blue-john by gemologists and was very much in demand for “vases and other carved ornamental objects” (Pearl, 1965). Fluorite is made up of two chemicals, calcium and fluorine (Pearl, 1965). “It may be referred to as a fluoride, or a halide because fluorine belongs to the halogen group of elements, which also includes, chlorine, bromine, and iodine” (Pearl, 1965).

This one below I purchased in August 2012 from a rock man at the Taos Flea Market. I posted two pictures of it from front and back. I think it's really cool. He said the little dark parts are fluorite and a small possibility that it might be Tourmaline. I didn't pay much for it so I think it must be fluorite, and it looks purple. It also includes crystallization; maybe you can see the tiny quartz crystals as well. You can also see the tiny piece of fluorite he gave me in front of it.

Image: Crystal rock with flourite 1 Image: Crystal Rock with flourite


Image: obsidianObsidian is a natural volcanic glass and has been often used as arrowheads and primitive cutting tools. It can be easily polished into semi-precious beads and stones (Shaffer and Zim, 2001).
(Right) Obsidian Sphere purchased in May of 2006 at the Taos Flea Market. About 1¾” across. He called it “rainbow obsidian”. It came from Colorado.
Obsidian is often used in jewelry. It can be transparent to opaque. It comes in several other colors but is usually black. “Snowflake, or flowering, obsidian is a black variety with white inclusions.” Its other colors are brown, green, yellow, red, blue and mahogany. (Sofianides, 1990)

Below, obsidian pieces that I purchased in 2007
Image: obsidian


Jasper is a variety of Quartz crystal (Sofianides, 1990) and is part of the chalcedony family (Borelli and Cipriani, 1986). “The qualities are hardness and durability. They are superfine grained rocks; the grains are not visible to the naked eye” (Sofianides, 1990). Jasper is an opaque quartz and is usually red, yellow or brown or sometimes two or more of these colors together. It lines cavities, fills cracks and forms crusts (Shaffer and Zim, 2001). Its hardness is 6.5; it forms in “concretionary deposit” (Borelli and Cipriani, 1986). “In spite of its commonness, jasper has been carved into a number of rather valuable art objects, particularly in Russia, where Siberian material with alternating red and green stripes has been much used” (Pearl, 1965).

Image:  jasperRed jasper, natural rock (left) Purchased on eBay Jan. 2006.
It is about 7¾” long and came from Michigan.



Image: schistVery cool schist rock found during March 1, 2007 field trip at the gravel pit. It is 3¾” wide.
Schist rocks are metamorphic rocks.
Schist is found in ancient rock mountains that have been highly eroded. Schists and the minerals in them vary greatly and this depends on the original rock and how it was metamorphosed. There is nearly always mica present. If it has more mica then it’s probably was originally shale or mudstone. If it has less mica and more feldspar or quartz then it most likely started out as a sandstone ( Dixon, 1992)

Image:  schistIn the book by Shaffer and Zim (2001) they call my schist (left) a garnet mica schist. 
Schist is “usually a highly metamorphosed shale composed mainly of many small flakes of mica, oriented roughly parallel,” with quartz. 
There are also garnets if it is a garnet mica schist.
Texture can vary from fine to course (Shaffer and Zim, 2001).
To the left is a schist with garnets which I found by a bridge at Orilla Verde very near the Rio Grande near Pilar on April 9, 2007.
It is 2¾” tall.


Image:  pyritePyrite or “fools gold” is an iron sulfide mineral that is very common and found throughout the world. Sometimes it is called “marcasite” when used in jewelry. But it is not marcasite. It is opaque “with a brass-yellow color and bright metallic luster” (Sofianides 1990).
Pyrite is not like gold either. The name comes from the Greek root “pyr” which means fire. It produces sparks if struck by iron. Its crystal system is cubic. It has a hardness of 6 to 6.5 and it is metallic. It is brittle and will crumble if it is hit by a hammer. (Cipriani and Borelli, 1986).
Image:  PyriteAbove on the right is a picture of pyrite that I purchased March 10, 2007 at a store near John Dunn Plaza. It is 2½” wide. They said it came from Peru . To the left, another, smaller pyrite that I purchased in 2008; I no longer have the one to the left as I gave it to a friend in 2015.


Image: galenaGalena is a sulphide of lead; its crystal system is cubic; its hardness is 2.5 and its luster is metallic but often tarnished (Dixon, 1992). “Glena is a heavy, brittle, silvery-gray mineral [and] has perfect cubic cleavage.” It was used in early crystal radio sets (Shaffer and Zim, 2001). On the left is a block of galena purchased March 10, 2007 at store near John Dunn Plaza in Taos, NM. They say it came from Madagascar . It is 1¾” wide.


Image:  rhyoliteRhyolite is light-colored acidic rock which has the same chemical composition as granite. It has a very fine texture. It has quartz and a glassy feldspar in it. The color is “white to pink to gray, though often reddish from iron stains” (Shaffer and Zim, 2001). Rhyolite is an extrusive igneous rock and is a form of granite. Acidic means a rock that contains more than 66 percent silica ( Dixon, 1992). (right) Rhyolite found along the Taos Ski Valley Road in April of 2007.It is 3” long.


Image:  gneissGneiss rock that I picked up along the Taos Ski Valley Road in April of 2007. It is 4¼” from point to point. This one seems to be a hornblende gneiss.
There are many kinds of gneiss. Gneiss “may be a metamorphosed granite, or a far more complex rock with possibly four or five different origins, either igneous or sedimentary” (Shaffer and Zim, 2001). It may also be a mixture of igneous and metamorphic at times. Gneiss is coarse-textured generally with minerals in parallel streaks (or bands) (Shaffer and Zim, 2001).

A couple of cool rocks a friend gave to me on June 27, 2015.
Petrified Wood and a Desert Rose.

Image: Petrified wood and a Desert Rose rockThe Petrified Wood is 2 inches across and the Desert Rose Crystal is about an inch and a quarter across. Desert Rose may also be known by other names like sand rose, rose rock, selenite rose, gypsum rose and baryte (barite) rose (from Wikipedia). Whatever you want to call it, it is pretty.
Petrified wood is the name given to a special type of fossilized remains of terrestrial vegetation. It is the result of a tree or tree-like plant having completely transitioned to stone by the process of permineralization (from Wikipedia).
I really like them both!


Image:  quartziteQuartzites that I found along the Taos Ski Valley Road and in Taos. The largest is 3½” long.
Quartzites are sandstones that have been metamorphosed and been re-crystallized so that they break through the quartz grains rather than through the cement like sandstones.
Quartzite is a massive metamorphic rock that is very hard like marble. They are a hardness of 7 and they have no cleavage, very much like quartz (Shaffer and Zim, 2001). 


Image:  granite“If our continental crust were to be melted down and “mixed thoroughly, and slowly cooled, the result would be granite.” It is mainly “feldspar, quartz, mica, and a small quantity of iron ore” ( Dixon, 1992). Granite forms in batholiths deep inside the earth’s crust in mountain chains. “There is no internal structure or planes of weakness, so it will break irregularly.” This granite rock came from along the Taos Ski Valley road in April, 2007 and it is about 4½” long.


Image: Lepidolite rockThis rock is about 4.5 inches across at its widest. I found this and the ones below summer of 2007 at the Harding Mine in Taos County, New Mexico as part of my UNM class outings. Lepidolite is a lithium mica with potassium and fluorine, also quite variable in composition. It is an ore of the light metal lighium. Some deposits occur in New England; more near San Diego, Cal., where one finds both an attractive lavender and a pale yellow form. Lepidolite gives a crimson flame color.

More Lepidolite (wet), the top ones are about 2 to 2.5 inches, the others below are smaller. I thought they looked cool wet.
Image:  Lepidolite Image:  Lepidolite
Image:  Lepidolite
Lepidolite has a luster of vitreous to pearly, its color is violet to pale pink to white and sometimes gray or yellow. It has a hardness of 2.5 and a white streak.


Image: Tektites, rocks from spaceI received these as a birthday gift some time ago.
What it says on the back of the package: "Tektites: Rocks from Space. Tektites are naturally occurring objects which have never been satisfactorily explained by scientists worldwide. Currently the most popular theories speculate that tektites have an extraterrestrial origin, either directly from the Moon or from the effects of large meteorites hitting the Earth." One type of tektite is a moldavite and see about this below. :-)

And... here's another picture. I never opened the package.
Image: Tektites, rocks from space

Image: MoldaviteMoldavite - I bought this Moldavite in June of 2013. What the ad said where I bought it: "This excellent grade green Czech moldavite individual weighs 12.0 cts / 2.4 grams! This piece has small hole drilled through it.
Image: Moldavite TektiteA nice piece of translucent moldavite with great characteristics from the Czech republic. This were formed during an impact of a large asteroid in the Ries impact crater area in today's German state of Bavaria 15 million years ago. This is one of the better known tektites and is often cut as a semi-precious gem."
I held it up to a light and could see the translucence! It's very cool. I like it lots. This has a hole drilled through it, so I used it in a necklace. See a picture of the necklace below. :-)
Image: Necklace with beads and one moldavite bead
The necklace I made with the above moldavite stone.

Image: Small moldavite stone in a packageI purchased this tiny moldavite stone (to the left) on eBay or Amazon in May 2015. It is about half an inch long. I have and will continue to keep it in its packaging.
What it says on the packaging: Crystal collection from Crystal Classics.
And: MOLDAVITE - Czech Republic - CRYSTAL ATTRIBUTES, Accelerates spiritual growth, improves clairvoyance, encourages compassion, protects the heart, and aids meditations.
What it says on the back: MINERAL INFORMATION, MINERAL SPECIES, N/A - Tektite. CHEMICAL FORMULA, -SiO2. CRYSTAL SYSTEM , N/A. ESOTERIC INFORMATION - BIRTHSTONE, All astrological signs. CHAKRA ALIGNMENT, Heart. KEY PROPERTIES, Formed approximately 15 million years ago after the impact of a giant meteorite, and used since the Stone Age as an amulet stone. Moldavite is reputed to assist in experiencing spirituality on many dimensions, helping first to empty the mind, and finally to transcend the physical body. It protects the heart, and aids meditation. Information courtesy of Janelle Scialla.
Someone once told us that moldavite is "bad." Bad energy or something. If someone tells you anything like that, don't believe them. We believed the person who told us that and ended up throwing two really cool moldavite stones in a stream somewhere in Taos, New Mexico. We were so naive. So anyway, don't believe everything that you hear.


I own some rocks and minerals and crystals. I am basically still a beginner. As I said at the beginning of this paper I like picking up pretty and interesting rocks and I like buying pretty and interesting minerals, rocks and crystals. I did not include them all in this paper because it would have been way to long. This was very interesting doing this research and perhaps I will continue one day with the remainder of my rocks for my own information. 
I will definitely continue to collect minerals, crystals and rocks. Well, some anyway.
I liked rocks before; now I will look at them and rock formations differently and I will wonder what they are, or perhaps I will know what they are. I know I will buy a rock book for myself. I’ve never owned one before and the ones I did my research with are all borrowed.
Perhaps some day I will make a video about my rocks, crystals and minerals.

Works Cited

Cipriani, Curzio and Alessandro Borelli. Simon & Schuster’s Guide to Gems and Precious Stones.  New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986.
Covey, Steve. Amethyst Galleries Mineral Gallery. 2006. Amethyst Galleries, Inc. 12 April 2007 <>.
Dixon, Dougal. The Practical Geologist. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992.
Friedman, Hershel. The mineral and gemstone kingdom: home. 2005. The Mineral and Gemstone Kingdom. 12 April, 2007 <>.
McDonald, Bill and Lori. Aqua Aura Quartz, Tanzine aura, Angel aura, Titaniium Aura Quartz Crystals, Points and Clusters. 19 April, 2007 <>
Pearl, Richard M. Popular Gemology. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1965.
Shaffer, Paul R. & Zim, Herbert S. Rocks Gems and Minerals: A guide to Familiar Minerals, Gems, Ores and Rocks. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2001.
Sofianides, Anna and George E Harlow. Gems & Crystals From the American Museum of Natural History.  New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990.


Paige Underwood represents Geology Degree, a site dedicated to Geology education and resources. She researched and completed a blog listing 105 of the best sites on Geology. Her list is filled with amazing sites including geology blogs & publications, state geological surveys, research groups & universities, hydrogeology, and volcanoes.
If you want to check it here you go:


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To print, choose print preview and choose Shrink to Fit. This paper is about 14 pages. Or you can choose landscape and don't shrink to fit and it will be about 19 pages long.

Image: box fluorite   Image:  pyrite
Above: Box flourite and Pyrite.


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